The world's oil revenues will be a huge wealth, oil institutions are of particular interest to the government; Due to the state system and the historical development of the oil industry is different, different countries management mode
Oil "Petroleum" is derived from the Greek word "Petro", namely the Rock (Rock), the Latin word "oleum" as the "Oil" (Oil) words in English. According to historical records, as early as 4000 years ago oil has been used by humans, such as the babylonian times, asphalt were used for walls and to build a bridge; The high society of ancient Persia when using drugs and light with oil. To the eighth century, Baghdad streets have adopted new natural asphalt paving the road.
The 9th century, discovered oil fields in azerbaijan Baku region, at the time of oil used to produce light oil. It is in the 13th century Marco? Documented in the polo travels east.
In 350 years ago, people use the energy in coal and firewood (biomass). Modern oil industry in Poland in 1852 pharmacists Mr Iger, luca west weitz (Jan Jozef Ignacy ukasiewicz, 1822-1882) found to make kerosene fuel from petroleum marked, the crow snow in Poland (Krosno), near the city of wave slope card (Bobrka) developed for oil field, this is the first modern oil deposits. Since then, oil deposits have been found all over the world, the Baku in Russia in 1861 built the first oil refinery, this is the world's largest manufacturer, accounts for about 90% of global oil production.
Modern petroleum industry refers to popularize and apply the modern science and technology, advanced production means and modern management to engage in production activities of the oil industry. Main features are: with a large number of high culture and technical quality technical personnel and workers, the production process realize mechanization, automation, automation and the use of advanced process equipment and new materials; Highly rigorous professional division of labor and cooperation; Wide application of electronic computer technology; Using scientific management methods of operational research. Some countries have a clear modern oil era the beginning of the year, such as Poland oil industry started the year for 1852, with Mr Iger, luca west building bo burka books (Bobrka) oil field marked; The American oil industry began the year of 1859 to Edwin Drake (1819 ~ 1880) Edwin Drake, near titusville, Pennsylvania dug the first oil well marked; The gas industry started the year for 1821 to Mr William Hart (William Hart) excavation, Pennsylvania, more shallow gas well marked; The Soviet union in 1946, for years, modern gas industry started to build 800 km of pipe marked saratov - Moscow. China has no clear idea, but can be seen from this article the history of the world governing body of China's oil.
The world's oil revenues will be a huge wealth, oil institutions are of particular interest to the government; Due to the state system and the historical development of the oil industry is different, different countries management mode. In general, the economic developed countries such as America, Canada, Britain, Australia and other markets highly liberalisation, petroleum development company, and in most countries is highly monopoly management. Can't liberalization than monopoly good conclusions. Throughout the history of the development of Chinese oil management institution, the development has formed "three barrels of oil". Since 2000, inside the barrel again many institutional adjustment, on-and-off for us cent cent, estimated that many people all around the cans speak not clear how to adjust, oil drums outside is fog. "Three barrels of oil" whether to become a big barrel of oil, are determined according to the situation, can't say is the resistance against the merger.
Cut short, coming back to the book.
The changes of Chinese oil management institutions
During the qing dynasty
In 1878, three years of guangxu (1877), the governor of fujian Ding Richang, qin qing development of the sulfonated pit miaoli county, the next year to hire the technician drilling, hole depth of 120 meters, nissan 1.5 tons of crude oil. In 1878 the qing government set the miaoli county bureau of mineral oil in Taiwan, in charge of the sulfur pit oilfield drilling operations. This is the first of China's modern oil industry management agencies, but there is no leading China petroleum exploration. The eleventh year of guangxu (1885) first in miaoli county, Taiwan governor liu mingchuan in drilling, successively drilled five Wells, well depth of 120 meters, only one oil and gas, production is very few.
Discovered gas fields in Taiwan in 1904, marked the beginning of government organization under the leadership of found gas field.
In 1907, set up in shaanxi to extend oil factory, belonging to the qing government which composed of. Shaanxi government hired Japanese technician in extended for petroleum exploration. Thirty-three years guangxu (1907) August shaanxi extend government hired Japanese technicians and craftsmen to purchase Japanese manufacturing drilling equipment, with the first bite.
Set up in Beijing in 1914, the beiyang government "for the kerosene mineral matters", a unified national petroleum enterprise.
During the period of the national government
Resources commission was established in 1934, the nanjing kuomintang government, it is the main mechanism of the kuomintang government to operate heavy industry factories, resources board design was originally founded in 1932 as the national defense commission, restructuring in 1934 changed name, belonging to the military commission. Was transferred in 1938 the ministry of economic affairs. In 1946 and was transferred to the executive yuan. Before the Anti-Japanese War, with Germany to provide funds, equipment and technology, heavy industry, which are held in the monopoly of tungsten, antimony, export trade, mainly with the German barter. Monopoly in the kuomintang areas during the Anti-Japanese War, with its iron and steel, nonferrous metals, electricity, coal, belong to, mechanical, electrical, chemical and other heavy industry. At the end of 1945 to reduce the enterprise up to 128. Received after the war Japan heavy and light industry enterprises in China, to reduce the enterprise increased to 291. After the founding, its affiliated companies in mainland China all the people.
Founded in July 1934, the ministry of economic affairs resources committee of shaanxi, gansu bureau of oil for oil exploration.
In June 1936, the ministry of economic affairs resources committee established in chongqing sichuan petroleum exploration, director wang Qing. On October 28, 1937, under the organization of engineer Wang Xianwen, yuba oil groove 1 well drilling. Opened a Chinese modern history of oil and gas drilling using rotary drilling rig history... .
In 1946, after the victory of Anti-Japanese War, the resources committee to receive the puppet army in northeast China, Taiwan and Shanghai oil refinery and oil storage facilities, and during the war of resistance combined with establishment of gansu yumen oil etc., was founded in Shanghai in June 1, 1946 Chinese oil co., LTD. Wong wen-hao as general manager. Yumen, oil exploration, such as Taiwan kaohsiung, the place such as the northeast, Shanghai, yumen refinery. In Shanghai, tianjin and other cities set up branches, sales and distribution of petroleum products. On a joint tanker companies in China and China merchants (crown after resources committee), responsible for oil transportation.
In 1949, China's oil co., LTD., moved to Taiwan, was transferred the ministry of economic affairs, Taiwan now operation of oil and gas, is located in Taipei city. Our main businesses include oil and gas exploration, development, refining and petrochemical products, and sales of geothermal energy. Because of the name of the company with the mainland China oil easily confused, later will be "China petroleum co., LTD." renamed "CPC co., LTD.".
During the period of the people's government
On October 1, 1949, the founding of the People's Republic of China. The central people's government to set up the fuel industry. In the industry of fuel oil management administration consists of northwest petroleum administration bureau, northeast petroleum administration bureau.
In December 1949, the industry of southwest stratocracy committee to take over the resources committee of Chinese oil companies in oil exploration in sichuan and chongqing business, the same month, southwest stratocracy committee appointed Huang Jiqing committee is responsible for the preparation of southwest region geological survey.
Founded in June 1950, the ministry of fuel industry administration oil exploration brigade of shaanxi northwest petroleum administration bureau.
On July 1, 1950, oil exploration in sichuan and chongqing business merger, set up the central fuel industry petroleum administration bureau of chongqing office.
On November 1, 1952, the ministry of fuel industry petroleum management bureau of chongqing office, set up industry of southwest petroleum exploration in southwest stratocracy committee.
Cancel the northwest petroleum administration bureau in 1953, set up oil drilling and oil geological survey.
In April 1953, southwest petroleum exploration by chongqing moved to chengdu.
In July 1953, cancel the petroleum management bureau, established fuel industry bureau of geological and drilling.
In May 1954, shaanxi exploration brigade from yenan moved to ningxia wuzhong city.
Founded in June 1955, fuel industry of xi 'an geological investigations. In September the same year renamed ministry of petroleum industry xi 'an geological investigations.
Established on September 1, 1955, ministry of petroleum industry. 13, such as the ministry for geological prospecting units have three survey (usgs), 10 refineries, four machinery factory, two engineering company and so on, a total of 80000 employees. Had 12 seismic crew, magnetic team 55, 120 drilling crew, a total of 4 has 10 oilfield, an annual output of 966000 tons of crude oil.
In November 1955, the industry of southwest stratocracy committee of southwest petroleum exploration in sichuan oil survey (usgs) changed its name to the oil industry.
In May 1958, renamed the yinchuan oil exploration in oil industry. On August 25, authorities moved to yinchuan from xi 'an.
In June 1958, sichuan petroleum survey (usgs) renamed sichuan petroleum administration bureau.
In July 1958, the ministry of petroleum industry of xi 'an geological investigations established petroleum industry to several survey (usgs). Oil industry petroleum exploration in yinchuan in yinchuan oil survey (usgs) renamed oil industry.
During the cultural revolution
In May 1965, cancel the sichuan petroleum administration bureau, established oil industry of sichuan oil from the headquarters.
In January 1966, the ministry of petroleum industry yinchuan yinchuan oil from the oil survey (usgs) renamed yumen petroleum administration bureau headquarters.
On March 27, 1967, cancel the oil industry of sichuan oil from the headquarters, set up sichuan petroleum administration bureau of the Chinese people's liberation army military control committee.
In October 1969, yumen petroleum administration bureau yinchuan oil battle command was renamed weald battle command, yumen petroleum administration bureau in Shanghai.
In December 1969, renamed the yumen petroleum administration bureau in longdong battle command, Taiwan.
In January 1970, renamed the yumen petroleum administration bureau in longdong area oil exploration headquarters.
On June 22, 1970, the coal industry, petroleum industry, chemical industry consolidation, ministry of chemical industry set up fuel.
In November 1970, longdong region oil exploration headquarters, cancel the yumen petroleum administration bureau established in lanzhou military region changqing oil field battle command post. After authorities in zhengning county ChangQingQiao, moved to qingyang.
On January 17, 1975, cancel the fuel ministry of chemical industry, coal chemical industry and oil industry.
Founded in September 1975, oil chemical industry of changqing oil field headquarters.
In 1976, changed its name to oil chemical industry of changqing oil field battle command. In March 1978 and renamed the ministry of petroleum industry changqing oil field battle command post.
Professional company set up in 1982-1988, CNOOC, SINOPEC and CNPC. Directly under the state council and the administrative functions
On March 5, 1978, cancel the fuel ministry of chemical industry, petroleum industry and chemical industry.
In July 1978, sichuan petroleum administration bureau of the Chinese people's liberation army military control commission instead of sichuan petroleum administration bureau.
On February 15, 1982, under the leadership of the ministry of petroleum industry established the China national offshore oil corporation, overall responsibility for exploitation of offshore oil international cooperation business. (1) the east of the south China sea oil company; (2) the west of the south China sea company; (3) the bohai oil company; (4) the south yellow sea oil company.
Founded in July 1983, "China petroleum and chemical corporation (SINOPEC).
Founded in September 1983, changqing petroleum survey (usgs) for oil industry.
In February 1987, changed its name to changqing petroleum survey (usgs), China national petroleum corporation.
In February 1987, renamed the sichuan petroleum administration bureau, China national petroleum corporation.
In September, 1988, ministry of petroleum industry changed its name to China national petroleum corporation (CNPC).
In early 1994, changqing petroleum survey (usgs) decision authority by qingyang moved to xi 'an.
In 1997, the former ministry of petroleum Marine geological survey was renamed China nova petroleum company.
On March 16, 1998, nine National People's Congress put forward a meeting through the institutional reform of the state council "the ministry of chemical industry, China national petroleum corporation, China petroleum and chemical corporation of government functions to merge, forming a national oil and chemical industry, by the state economic and trade commission administration. Chemical and two corporation subordinate enterprises and oil companies and gas stations, according to the principle of upstream and downstream, respectively to form two oversize oil and petrochemical enterprise group company and several large chemical fertilizers, chemical products company.
Originally belong to China national petroleum corporation in eight fields: victory, the central plains, jianghan, dianqiangui, jiangsu, henan, anhui and zhejiang, transferred to the China petroleum and chemical group co., LTD. Changed its name to China national petroleum corporation, China national petroleum corporation (CNPC). The original belong to the 13 main refinery of the China petroleum and chemical corporation including daqing, fushun, liaoyang, jinzhou, jinxi, dalian, lanzhou and urumqi in transferred to the China national petroleum corporation. China petroleum and chemical corporation changed its name to China petroleum and chemical corporation (SINOPEC).
Founded in September 1988, "China national petroleum corporation (CNPC).
1994-1994, the company's share of pilot period towards the international market
Founded in September 1994, "Shanghai petrochemical co., LTD.", the first listed on the Hong Kong securities market and the New York stock exchange. "Zhenhai refining &chemical co., LTD." listed on the Hong Kong securities market. "Jilin chemical industry co., LTD." listed on the Hong Kong securities market.
In January 1997, the geological and mineral system set up a "China nova petroleum co., LTD.".
Established in April 1997, China petroleum and chemical corporation "yanshan petrochemical co., LTD. Hong Kong's stock market.
In July 1998, the administration and enterprise's for complete separation, establish a group of companies
Founded in July 1998, "China national petroleum corporation (CNPC)" and "China petroleum and chemical corporation (SINOPEC)".
In 1999-2001, the company's "co., LTD.", the international stock market listing
Founded in September 1999, CNOOC "China national offshore oil co., LTD. (Hong Kong).
In November 1999, sichuan petroleum administration bureau is decomposed into sichuan petroleum administration bureau and petrochina southwest oil and gas field branch.
Founded in November 1999, CNPC "China national petroleum co., LTD.".
Founded in February 2000, SINOPEC "China petroleum and chemical co., LTD.".
March 31, 2000, China nova petroleum co., LTD. Integrated into China petrochemical group company, become a wholly owned subsidiary of China petroleum and chemical group company, changed its name to China petroleum and chemical group xinxing petroleum co., LTD.
In April 2000, "China national petroleum co., LTD." in New York, Hong Kong's st