Strategic oil reserves is of great significance to the national development.At present, the annual output of about 200 million tons of oil, but the annual consumption of more than 500 million tons, mainly large oilfield, daqing oilfield, shengli oilfield, huabei oilfield stable output pressure, etc.Our country has become the world's second largest oil importer, external dependency is about 60%, the international oil price fluctuations will have an impact to our country economy.Moreover, most of China's oil imports by sea transportation, offshore oil transport corridor also has certain risks.Either from the perspective of economy, national defense security, or from the perspective of adjust and stabilize the international oil price fluctuations, all need to speed up the perfect strategic oil reserve system, strengthen the construction of oil reserves.
Standards about the safety of oil reserves, the international energy agency think reserves should reach 90 days of consumption.This is the internationally recognized standard.About whether China's petroleum reserve must meet this standard, the academia there exist differences.Some people believe that the future a long period of time, the international crude oil market will be a glut, into the buyer's market.Major producers and large multinational oil companies are competing for the Chinese market, to enhance the ability and power of our country's access to oil.Therefore, the necessity of reserves in accordance with the standards of 90 days of consumption is not big.This view makes sense.But also want to see, China's oil supply is bigger vulnerability, focusing on the current international oil market supply and demand is not enough.Combined with a period of time in the future, the oil will not be replaced by new energy on a large scale, so you have a long-term plan, to ensure oil supply safety in our country.
At present, our country's oil reserves are far from 90 days of consumption level.Therefore, we should not only solve the oil reserves in the infrastructure construction lags behind the "hardware" problem, also want to be in the oil reserve system, strengthening the supervision and administration of "software" aspects, such as strengthening the supply and the system innovation.Should be combined with the international practice and the reality needs, the petroleum reserve varieties suitable to China's national conditions and the optimum standard, both to ensure the safety of energy supply, also avoid the construction of the high maintenance costs.Should accelerate the construction of national petroleum reserve phase ii project schedule, stepped up efforts to complete in the early period of the three phase of the project planning.In perfecting the management mechanism, clear responsibilities, establish and improve the incentive constraints mechanism under the premise of increasing capital investment, to accelerate the process of oil reserves in the infrastructure construction.At the same time, we should rely on oil production and consumption status of development of the oil futures market.Oil for delivery by the exchange huge social reserves, which is formed by the library will make up the lack of national strategic oil reserves.
China's strategic oil reserve base location relatively concentrated, the first phase of concentrated in the eastern coastal areas.In the future on the spatial layout should be appropriate dispersion, combination of coastal and inland.On the base location should follow the following principles: convenient transportation, low cost;At low risk of safe and reliable, storage;Balanced district, close to the market.The future can consider in northeast, northwest inland areas choose reserve base near the pipeline transport hub station., for the sake of storage facility security can promote salt cave construction of oil depots.Salt layer itself, low permeability, good sealing ability, not easy to leak, low cost, good environmental protection and construction.
The international energy agency will oil reserves are divided into three categories: government reserves, reserve reserves of enterprises and institutions.The government reserve fund construction and control directly by the government.Including compulsory reserves and business enterprise reserves, compulsory reserves by oil products enterprises in accordance with the law, is usually a fixed proportion of sales;The enterprise independent commercial reserves.Agency reserves is organized by public law obligations reserves.At present, the lack of a clear classification petroleum reserve system in our country.Should speed up and improve the state, business, social layers of oil reserve system, define the function, orientation of various types of reserves, investment management main body and the rotation and the conditions of use, etc., increase reserves and emergency ability.
Petroleum reserve operation need policy support.Reserves in order to reduce the financing costs, the state should provide support funds, as a main body and oil reserves provide policy financing support and preferential fiscal and taxation.At the same time of policy incentives, should also perfect the supervision system.Shall establish and improve the oil reserves infrastructure safety standards and assessment system, the operation of the comprehensive evaluation of petroleum reserve facilities construction technology security and economic, social security, national defense, etc.Reserves of oil should be carried out examination and approval authorities such as procurement, rotation and scheduling or BaoBeiZhi degrees.Regulatory response to the reserve base and enterprises to establish a system for regular or irregular inspection, grasp the scale of the reserve, quality, safety, environmental regulations and management status, and according to the standard implementation of rewards and punishments.